Click on colorful terms to see a picture. Some terms, such as various methods, will not have pictures.

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Algae Discoloration: A type of roof discoloration caused by algae. Commonly called fungus growth.

Alligatoring: The cracking of the surfacing bitumen on a built-up roof, producing a pattern of cracks similar to an alligator’s hide.

American Method: Application of very large individual shingles with the long dimension parallel to the rake. Shingles are applied with a 3/4-inch space between adjacent shingles in a course.

Angled Fasteners: Roofing nails and staples driven into decks at angles not parallel to the deck.

Apron Flashing: Metal flashing used at chimney fronts.

ARMA: Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association. Organization of roofing manufacturers.

Asphalt: A bituminous waterproofing agent applied to roofing materials during manufacturing.

Asphalt Concrete Primer: Asphalt based primer used to prepare concrete and metal for asphalt sealant.

Asphalt Roofing Cement: An asphalt-based cement used to bond roofing materials. Also known as flashing cement or mastic; should conform to ASTM D4586.

ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. A voluntary organization concerned with development of consensus standards, testing procedures, and specifications.

Back Surfacing: Fine material matter applied to the back side of shingles to keep them from sticking.

Balanced System: A ventilation system where 50% of the required ventilating area is provided by vents located in the upper portion of the roof with the balance provided by undereave or soffit vents.

Base Flashing: That portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering.

Blistering: Bubbles or pimples in roofing materials. Usually moisture or heat related. In shingles, blisters are caused by moisture under the material, moisture trapped inside the material, or heat trapped under the material due to insufficient ventilation.

Blow-Offs: When shingles are subjected to high winds, and are forced off a roof deck.

Brands: Airborne burning embers released from a fire.

Bridging: A method of re-roofing with metric-sized shingles.

Bruising: Fracturing of the base mat often caused by hail that does not fracture the shingle surface, resulting in softness of the shingle.

Buckling: When a wrinkle or ripple affects shingles or their underlayments.

Building Code: Published regulations and ordinances established by a recognized agency prescribing design loads, procedures, and construction details for structures. Usually applying to designated jurisdictions (city, county, state, etc.). Building codes control design, construction, and quality of materials, use and occupancy, location and maintenance of buildings and structures within the area for which the code has been adopted.

Built-Up Roof: A flat or low-slope roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.

Bundle: A package of shingles. There are 3, 4, or 5 bundles per square.

Butt Edge: The lower edge of the shingle tabs.


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